and videos detailing some of the history of flapping-wing flight.
With appreciation to Jack Stephenson, Darren Worley, Horst Räbiger,
Deutsches Museum, and others for providing content.
the Ornithopter Video Archives
von Holst - Includes two ornithopters from the 1940s, plus
slow-motion footage of bird and insect flight and Holst's "thrust-wing"
Spencer's Seagulls - These engine-powered ornithopters flown
c.1958 used the aeroelastic membrane wing design still used
in most ornithopters. This clip shows close-ups of the mechanism
and some flight scenes.
Spencer's Orniplane - The first known radio-controlled ornithopter.
It was flown in 1961.
all the flap in Oklahoma City?
by Larry Kruse, Flying Models, December 1985. This article
is a snapshot of ornithopter modelling in the mid-1980s. It describes
some of the indoor competition events and introduces the Ornithopter
Modelers Society (now Ornithopter Society).
complete book of model aircraft, spacecraft, and rockets
by Louis H. Hertz, Bonanza Books, 1968. Partial book chapter describing
engine-powered ornithopters of Harry D. Graulich and Percival H.
Spencer. The chance discovery of this book in a local library, in
the early 1990s, brought Spencer's previously unknown work to light
within the ornithopter community, and led to a proliferation of
new radio controlled ornithopters borrowing from Spencer's simple
and effective design.
guide to Ornithopters
by John White, Aero Modeller, May and June 1993. Explains
the phased biplane system used by the author. Anyone interested
in free-flight ornithopter competition should read this.
by D.J. Laidlaw-Dickson, Aeromodeller, October 1946. The
article gives an overview of various rubber and engine-driven ornithopters
of the time. Most interesting is the reference to a successful engine-driven
ornithopter, which was known to the author, but not known to those
of us who were building ornithopters twenty years ago.
Wing Flight in Nature and Science
by Karl Herzog, Aeromodeller Annual, 1964-1965, pages 44-57.
Describes various manned and unmanned ornithopters. Construction
details for the innovative rubber-powered ornithopters of Erich
von Holst. Translated and condensed from Herzog's series of articles
in Mechanikus. For the complete series of articles in German, visit
Powered Flight in 1929 by Alexander Lippisch
Detailed account of Lippisch manned ornithopter. Journal of the
Royal Aeronautical Society, Volume 64, July 1960.
des deutschen Luftfahrttecknik
by Bruno Lange, Bernard und Gräfe Verlag, Koblenz, 1986. Page
229. Describes two manned ornithopters flown by Adalbert Schmid
of Pause aircraft company in 1942 and 1947. Also describes the Mücke
sport plane developed by Schmid in 1939. (German with English translation)
revolutioniere mit schlagenden Schwingen die Sportfliegerei
by Adalbert Schmid, Weltluftfahrt, Volume 1, Issue 9, March
1950, page 195. Adalbert Schmid describes his manned ornithopter
flights of the 1940s. With photos of the 1942 ornithopter prior
to addition of motor. (German with English translation)
NS Fliegerkorps, December 1943. Newsletter with photos and description
of some early engine-powered ornithopters. Construction details
are provided. (German language)
by Alexander Lippisch, NS Fliegerkorps, Berlin, 1938. Theoretical
treatment of flapping wings. It was published with the large rubber-powered
ornithopter Libelle on our plans page. (German language)
Flugsport, 1937. Ornithopters of Vincenz Chalupsky, powered
by compressed air. (German language)
Flop, the Ornithop!
Model Airplane News, April 1972. An article about Ken Johnson's
indoor, rubber-powered ornithopters.
Model Airplane News, February 1999. The story of Percival
Spencer's Orniplane, the world's first radio-controlled ornithopter,
and its restoration by Faye Stilley, which provided for the first
time detailed design information on this historic flying machine.
près du But, Yves Rousseau
Actualizés, June 2006. Yves Rousseau's manned ornithopter,
based on an ultralight airplane, which made a 100 meter flight in
2005. (French and English)
Wing Technology for a Battery-Powered Ornithopter
Pornsin-sirirak, Lee, Nassef, Grasmeyer, Tai, Ho, Keennon. Caltech
Micromachining Laboratory. Details the development of Caltech's
micro air vehicle ornithopter, Microbat.